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Both methods take two arguments: the first argument is a string containing the name of the class and optional alias, the second argument is an array consisting of relation options. The option array contains the following keys:. It has three columns: name, description and since we didn't specify any primary key, Doctrine auto-creates an id column for it.
Notice the as keyword being used above. The columns here are irrelevant, but pay attention to how we define the relation. Since each Thread can have only one Board we are using the hasOne method. Now we can start using these classes. The same accessors that you've already used for properties are all available for relations.
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Each Thread needs to be associated to a user so lets create a new User and associate it to each Thread :. Now we can save all the changes with one call. It will save the new board as well as its threads:. Lets do a little inspecting and see the data structure that is created when you use the code from above.
Add some code to test. In this example we have specified true because we want to include the Threads data. Notice how the auto increment primary key and foreign keys are automatically set by Doctrine internally. You don't have to worry about the setting of primary keys and foreign keys at all! One-to-one relations are probably the most basic relations. In the following example we have two classes, User and Email with their relation being one-to-one.
First lets take a look at the Email class. Since we are binding a one-to-one relationship we are using the hasOne method. This is due to a fact that Email is owned by the User class and not the other way around. In fact you should always follow this convention - always place the foreign key in the owned class. When using YAML schema files it is not required to specify the relationship on the opposite end User because the relationship is automatically flipped and added for you.
The relationship will be named the name of the class.
So in this case the relationship on the User side will be called Email and will be many. If you wish to customize this you can use the foreignAlias and foreignType options. The Email class is very similar to the User class. Notice how the local and foreign columns are switched in the hasOne definition compared to the definition of the Email class.
The recommended conventions you came in terms with in the previous chapter also apply to one-to-many and many-to-one relations. In the following example we have two classes: User and Phonenumber. We define their relation as one-to-many a user can have many phonenumbers. Here once again the Phonenumber is clearly owned by the User so we place the foreign key in the Phonenumber class.
A tree structure is a self-referencing foreign key relation. The following definition is also called Adjacency List implementation in terms of hierarchical data concepts. The above implementation is purely an example and is not the most efficient way to store and retrieve hierarchical data. Check the NestedSet behavior included in Doctrine for the recommended way to deal with hierarchical data.
If you are coming from relational database background it may be familiar to you how many-to-many associations are handled: an additional association table is needed. In many-to-many relations the relation between the two components is always an aggregate relation and the association table is owned by both ends. You can override this behavior by setting the relations to association component in this case Groupuser explicitly. In the following example we have Groups and Users of which relation is defined as many-to-many.
In this case we also need to define an additional class called Groupuser. Please note that group is a reserved keyword so that is why we renamed the table to groups using the setTableName method. Notice how the relationship is bi-directional. Both User has many Group and Group has many User.
This is required by Doctrine in order for many-to-many relationships to fully work. Now lets play around with the new models and create a user and assign it some groups. First create a new User instance:. Equal nest relations are perfectly suitable for expressing relations where a class references to itself and the columns within the reference class are equal. This means that when fetching related records it doesn't matter which column in the reference class has the primary key value of the main class. The previous clause may be hard to understand so lets take an example.
We define a class called User which can have many friends.
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Notice here how we use the 'equal' option. Now if we access for example the friends of Stefan Beer it would return one user 'Mikko Koskenkorva':. A foreign key constraint specifies that the values in a column or a group of columns must match the values appearing in some row of another table. In other words foreign key constraints maintain the referential integrity between two related tables. Let's also assume you have a table storing orders of those products.
We want to ensure that the order table only contains orders of products that actually exist. So we define a foreign key constraint in the orders table that references the products table:. Foreign key columns are automatically indexed by Doctrine to ensure optimal performance when issuing queries involving the foreign key. We say that in this situation the orders table is the referencing table and the products table is the referenced table.https://kinun-houju.com/wp-content/qekyvidag/4146.php
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Similarly, there are referencing and referenced columns. When you define a relationship in Doctrine, when the foreign key is created in the database for you Doctrine will try to create a foreign key name for you. Sometimes though, this name may not be something you want so you can customize the name to use with the foreignKeyName option to your relationship setup. Delete or update the row from the parent table and automatically delete or update the matching rows in the child table.
Delete or update the row from the parent table and set the foreign key column or columns in the child table to NULL.
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In standard SQL, NO ACTION means no action in the sense that an attempt to delete or update a primary key value is not allowed to proceed if there is a related foreign key value in the referenced table. Rejects the delete or update operation for the parent table. In the following example we define two classes, User and Phonenumber with their relation being one-to-many.
We also add a foreign key constraint with onDelete cascade action. This means that every time a user is being deleted its associated phonenumbers will also be deleted. The integrity constraints listed above are case sensitive and must be in upper case when being defined in your schema. Notice how the integrity constraints are placed on the side where the foreign key exists. This is required in order for the integrity constraints to be exported to your database properly.
Indexes are used to find rows with specific column values quickly. Without an index, the database must begin with the first row and then read through the entire table to find the relevant rows. The larger the table, the more this consumes time. If the table has an index for the columns in question, the database can quickly determine the position to seek to in the middle of the data file without having to look at all the data.
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If a table has 1, rows, this is at least times faster than reading rows one-by-one. Indexes come with a cost as they slow down the inserts and updates. However, in general you should always use indexes for the fields that are used in SQL where conditions. An example of adding a simple index to field called name:. The following index examples are not meant for you to actually add to your test Doctrine environment.
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They are only meant to demonstrate the API for adding indexes. Doctrine offers many index options, some of them being database specific. Here is a full list of available options:. Doctrine supports many special indexes. In the last example we add constraint to ensure that price is always higher than the discounted price.